CEC is devoted to ensuring all students with exceptionalities, no matter their birthplace, receive a quality education. As such, we are committed to international special education practice and policy initiatives. The following reports, briefs, and papers represent the examination and assessment of international special education initiatives and practices by stakeholder organizations worldwide.

World Bank

Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Snapshot from the World Health Survey

“This study aims to contribute to the empirical research on social and economic conditions of people with disabilities in developing countries. Using comparable data and methods across countries, this study presents a snapshot of economic and poverty situation of working-age persons with disabilities and their households in 15 developing countries.”

World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO - World Report on Disability
“The World Health Organization published its first ever report on disability.
The first ever WHO/World Bank World report on disability reviews evidence about the situation of people with disabilities around the world. Following chapters on understanding disability and measuring disability, the report contains topic-specific chapters on health; rehabilitation; assistance and support; enabling environments; education; and employment. Within each chapter, there is a discussion of the barriers confronted, and case studies showing how countries have succeeded in addressing these by promoting good practice. In its final chapter, the report offers nine concrete recommendations for policy and practice which if put in place could lead to real improvements in the lives of people with disability.”

WHO - Community Based Rehabilitation Guidelines
“Recommendations to develop guidelines on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) were made during the International Consultation to Review Community-based Rehabilitation which was held in Helsinki, Finland in 2003.”

WHO - Guidelines on the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less-resourced Settings
“The wheelchair is one of the most commonly used assistive devices for enhancing the personal mobility of people with disabilities. The guidelines, developed for use in less resourced settings, address the design, production, supply and service delivery of manual wheelchairs, in particular for long-term wheelchair users. The guidelines and related recommendations are targeted at a range of audiences, including policy-makers; planners, managers, providers and users of wheelchair services; designers, purchasers, donors and adapters of wheelchairs; trainers of wheelchair provision programmes; representatives of disabled people’s organizations; and individual users and their families.”

WHO - Promoting sexual and reproductive health for persons with disabilities
“An estimated 10% of the world’s population live with a disability. Persons with disabilities have the same sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs as other people. Yet they often face barriers to information and services. This guidance note addresses issues of SRH programming for persons with disabilities.“

WHO -Guidelines for training personnel in developing countries for prosthetic and orthotic services.
“More than 600 million people in the world experience disabilities of various types and degrees. An estimated 80% of the world's disabled people live in developing countries. Despite the incremental progress made in the past 25 years, today, the vast majority of people with disabilities cannot access even basic rehabilitation services. In response to this, the United Nations has issued Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities as guidelines in health, education, work and social participation (UN, 1993).”


UNESCO - Open File on Inclusive Education: Support Materials for Managers and Administrators
UNESCO’s inclusive education report is purposed for school managers and administrators. Topics include rationale for inclusive education, developing inclusive policies and practices, professional development, educational assessment, including families and stakeholders, developing inclusive curriculum, developing finance protocols, and sustaining the change.

UNESCO - Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education. A challenge and a vision
“It is in this context that this paper seeks to map out inclusive approaches in education as a strategy to achieve the goal of education for all. It aims to construct a coherent conceptual and contextual policy framework in order to provide access and quality in basic education for all children and young people, and what it implies for education systems so that these needs can be addressed and responded to in mainstream of education whether it is formal or non-formal.”

UNESCO - Changing Teaching Practices
“Research has clearly shown that teacher education as such is not sufficient for effective teaching and learning. Teachers need support in order to develop in their profession. In many countries, teachers benefit from continuous in-service training but in other countries there is very little if any support available for professional development in the schools. This document is an effort to support teachers in developing and expanding their own capacities.”

UNESCO - Guidelines for Inclusion. Ensuring Access to Education for All
“This paper is intended to systematize how excluded children are planned for in education. It begins with a brief introduction, which provides a historical perspective on the origins of inclusion and describes the shift from integration towards inclusion. It is then divided into three main parts. The first provides a theoretical framework. It defines inclusion, explains how it is founded in a human rights approach and how is relates to factors such as quality and cost-effectiveness. The second part looks at more practical changes at the school level. It outlines the key elements in the shift inclusion with a particular focus on the key players including teachers, parents and educational policymakers as well as curricula. The third part brings together the first two sections by providing tools for policymakers and educational planners for hands-on analysis of education plans.”

UNESCO - Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for Creating Inclusive, Learning-Friendly Environments
“The education of children with diverse backgrounds and abilities remains a major challenge in the Asia-Pacific region. Inequality in education remains a matter of concern for all countries, yet discrimination continues to permeate schools and educational systems. This Toolkit accepts this, and offers a holistic practical perspective on how schools and classrooms can become more inclusive and learning-friendly.”

UNESCO - Understanding and Responding to Children’s Needs in Inclusive Classrooms
“This guide gives both a theoretical outline and practical ideas on helping children with learning difficulties. It aims to assist teachers who have children with special needs in their pre-school or primary classes.”

UNESCO - The Dakar Framework for Action
Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments
Adopted by the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal April 2000, the Framework urges countries to establish quality basic education for all students by 2015 or earlier.

UNESCO - EFA Flagship Initiatives
Multi-Partner Collaborative Mechanisms in Support of EFA Goals
-- Each initiative outlines a set of activities that focus on specific challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve the EFA goals. These initiatives are intended to be conducted in a collaborative effort by United Nations partners.

UNESCO - The Salamanca Statement
World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality.
Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education in Salamanca, Spain, June 1994, this statement "urges all governments to adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular school".

Education International and Oxfam Novib; Quality Educators: An International Study of Teacher Competences and Standards

“In 2010, Education International and Oxfam Novib set up the Quality Educators for All project (Quality-ED), a partnership together with national stakeholders to address the worldwide shortage and declining status of teachers and the poor quality of education. Beginning with pilot projects in Mali and Uganda, the partnership included Ministries of Education, trade unions, civil society organisations, and others. Quality-ED’s starting point was to develop a competence profile (CP) for primary teachers defining the skills, knowledge and attitudes of ‘quality educators’.”

Protecting Children in Tough Economic Times: What Can the United States Learn from Britain?

“Following a successful, decade-long campaign to reduce child poverty by half, author Jane Waldfogel, Ph.D. of Columbia University and London School of Economics, documents the concrete steps taken by the United Kingdom to maintain its commitment to reduce child poverty in the midst of deficit reduction, even following a change in government. The U.K. preserved its commitment to fighting child poverty right up through the recession - through a set of income support policies that preserved and increased supports for low-income children, as well as critical investments in children in the areas of education, early learning, and development. The paper also outlines the parallels the United States can consider as it faces similar challenges with budget negotiations and deficit reduction.”

The UN Convention on the Rights for Persons with Disabilities

The Convention outlines the inalienable rights of person’s with disabilities granted to them by membership as humans.


UNICEF - Innocenti Insight: Children and Disability in Transition in CEC/CIS and Baltic States

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
"UNICEF IRC has tracked and explored the impact on children and their families of economic and social changes in the region since transition began."

Education for All and Children with Disabilities

European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education

Early Childhood Intervention - Progress and Development 2005-2010

The current project work was an update to the analysis in the area of ECI conducted by the Agency in 2003-2004.

Special Needs Education Country Data 2010

The Agency SNE data collection is a biennial exercise with data provided by the Representatives of the Agency. In all cases this data is from official ministerial sources.

Key Principles for Promoting Quality in Inclusive Education - Recommendations for Policy Makers

This document has been prepared by educational policy makers in order to provide other policy makers across Europe with a synthesis of the main policy findings that have emerged from the Agency thematic work supporting the inclusion of learners with different types of special educational needs (SEN) within mainstream provision. This edition draws upon Agency work from 2003 to date.

Multicultural Diversity and Special Needs Education

This report is a summary of the analysis conducted by the Agency at the request of member countries’ representatives, on the topic of Special Needs Education and Multicultural Diversity.

Development of a set of indicators - for inclusive education in Europe

This report presents the framework, rationale, aims and objectives of the Indicators for inclusive education project, as well as the methodology used to develop the set of indicators for monitoring developments in inclusive education.

Thematic Key Words for Inclusive and Special Needs Education

This document is a glossary of key terms in 21 languages updated in 2009. All of the terms included in the glossary are taken from Agency thematic and project work.

Special Needs Education Country Data 2008

The Agency SNE data collection is a biennial exercise with data provided by the Representatives of the Agency. In all cases this data is from official Ministerial sources.

Young Voices: Meeting Diversity in Education

This report presents the results of the European Hearing of Young People with Special Educational Needs organised by the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, in co-operation with the Portuguese Ministry of Education.

Assessment in Inclusive Settings - Key Issues for Policy and Practice

This publication presents the main findings from the first phase of the Agency Assessment project. It is based on information describing assessment policy and practice provided by 23 countries.

Special Needs Education in Europe (Volume 2) - Provision in Post-Primary Education

A thematic publication providing a summary of relevant information collected by the Agency covering three priority areas within the field of special needs education: Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice in Secondary Education, Access to and within Higher Education for Students with Special Educational Needs and Transition from School to Employment.

Individual Transition Plans

This report is a continuation of an earlier study on Transition from School to Employment for Young People with Special Educational Needs, published by the Agency in 2002.

Early Childhood Intervention: Analysis of Situations in Europe - Key Aspects and Recommendations

This report aims to summarize the project analysis of key aspects of Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) in 19 European countries during 2003-2004.

Young Views on Special Needs Education

Results of the European Parliament Hearing of young people with special needs, November 2003.

Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice in Secondary Education

This summary report presents an overview of the findings of the second phase of the Classroom and School Practice project.

Inclusive education and classroom practices

A summary report presenting an overview of the findings of the Classroom and School Practice project, primary school age phase.

Special Education across Europe in 2003

Trends in provision in 18 countries. An update to the 1998 Agency report.